Hotels, apartments, houses full to bursting with visitors, and some of them even come here for a few weeks before, to be able not to miss the most spectacular and colorful event Italy — Venice carnival.
Venetian carnival originates from the ancient Roman saturnalias — the annual festival, in honour of the God Saturn. The celebrations took place after of harvests, and was accompanied by massive festivals. In the holidays attended the masters and their slaves. So as not to spoil anyone’s holiday by the presence of those or other persons, and not to generate class prejudices, everyone hid their faces behind masks.
It is not known when and where did the word “carnival”. One of the most popular versions belongs to the Catholic Church. According to this version, the word comes from the Latin “carne vale” meaning “farewell to meat”. To accommodate pre-Christian traditions to the new faith, and to make the transition less painful, the Church coincided with the feast of the preparation for the Great Lent before Easter.
Venice carnival is the oldest carnival in the world, the first mention of it occurs in 1094, and in 1296 the Senate of the Venetian Republic, officially proclaimed the last day before lent a public holiday.
In the 18th century Venetian carnival began in October and lasted six months.
On the carnival holiday, everyone forgot about social conditions and the rules of decency. Everyone can have fun as he wanted. The streets were full of jugglers and acrobats. In the palaces passed pompous masquerade balls. The square was filled with people in gorgeous outfits.
It is sort of a tale when a poor man becomes rich, and can care for Princess and the noble lady could become the target of a vicious desires. All this happened thanks to the famous masks that has concealed the true face of the party.
Venetian mask is the symbol of the Venetian carnival.
The earliest masks were very simple, and was not only symbolic, but also practical. Masks have become so popular that they were worn on ordinary days. Often, masks are used to commit nefarious deeds. Such abuse has led to the fact that the Church banned the wearing of masks outside the carnival.
In 1608, Venice issued a decree, according to which men for wearing of masks in daily life was sentenced to two years imprisonment, and fined, and women publicly h on the square rod.
Helmets today are more refined, elegant and colorful.
The process of mask making begins with plaster molds, greased with vaseline. Inside this form is filled by a layer of papier-mache, which is prepared by a special recipe. After the form dries, it is sanded and cut out holes for the eyes.
The next stage decor. The decoration of the mask is the most laborious and slow process, requiring patience and precision. In the process of decorating used acrylic paint, enamel, lacquers, luxury fabrics, rhinestones, bird feathers and even jewelry. Often masks specifically varnish giving the effect of antiquity. Masks can be so elegant and beautiful that the prices are sometimes very high.
Traditional Venetian images is a Plague Doctor, Bauta, Venice Queen, cat, Citizen.
The Plague doctor (Medico della Peste)
Plague is one of the most terrible diseases to Venice, visited the city several times and claimed the lives of many people. This mask during the plague doctors wore, when visiting the sick patients. Feature mask — long Church and the nose. It was located aromatic oils and other substances that are protected from infection. This mask was supplemented by a dark long cloak made of linen or waxed matter, but in the hands of the doctor was holding a special stick to not touch the sore with your hands. The view was pretty ominous.
The most popular Venetian mask. Since its emergence in the 17th century, it served as a cover for all classes and genders. The mask was complemented by a black cloak and a triangular hat.
This mask is often worn by high-ranking officials during anonymous access to the people. The mask was comfortable due to the fact that it was possible to eat and drink without removing it. And, despite his terrible appearance, she was very popular.
Venetian Lady (Dama di Venezia)
The most elegant mask depicting a noble Venetian beauty era of Titian. The mask has several varieties: liberty, Valerie, Salome, Fantasy, etc.
Because cats in Venice was short, we treated them with great respect, and even dedicated a mask of that animal.
This mask is known as VOLTO (Volto).
The neutral mask, which follows the shape of a human face. This mask was attached to the head with ribbons, and some of the masks had a handle on the chin.
The mask that came with the street theatre of Venice, enjoy great popularity — Pulcinella, Columbine, Pierrot, harlequin, Pedrolino, and others.
Until the end of the eighteenth century the carnival of Venice was a major event in the life of Venice, but eventually interest waned.
Second breath of Carnaval opened in the second half of the twentieth century.
Nowadays, the carnival takes place in February and lasts for 10 days. Opens the Venetian carnival, the Festa delle Marie, associated with the legend of the abduction of the girls. The legend says that the pirates kidnapped the girls, had defeated the young Venetians who returned their brides home.
St. Mark’s square, arranged presentation of “Commedia Dell’arte”, and then rain down on the audience tons of confetti.
After this, the carnival procession — thousands of residents go outside the city, clad in elegant costumes and masks. City squares are concerts, theatres, plays based on the theme of carnival, and in the old palaces are masquerade balls.